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Neutron stars and neutrinos

A.T. Serkov, A.A. Serkov


The hypothesis of the formation of neutron stars and neutrinos from the nuclei of chemical elements that have lost electrons and axial rotation due to the viscous resistance of the environment, which provided the mutual repulsive force between the nuclei (Lorentz force), is presented. Electronless nuclei when colliding with a speed below the parabolic one increase in size up to the formation of space objects - neutron stars, and at a speed above the parabolic one they are fragmented to the size of neutrinos.

We learned about the existence of neutron stars relatively recently (1967) after the discovery of pulsars by D. Bell, cosmic sources of powerful radio, optical, X-ray and gamma radiation that come to Earth in the form of periodic pulses (bursts). The power and frequency of these bursts could come from space objects with the mass of the Sun, but rotating at a frequency of 0.01-1.0 s-1. Such a combination of parameters could be realized only when the mass density of objects is not less than 1012 g / cm3, that is, the density of matter of the nuclei of atoms, protons and neutrons.Hence the name "neutron stars".

In total, our galactic system contains a huge number of such objects, reaching 108 or even 109 units, which is about 10% of the total mass of stars in the galaxy. This is a lot and we can talk about an independent branch of the evolution of matter associated with the formation and transformations of matter with an ultrahigh density of ~ 1012 g / cm3.

Neutron stars, according to the main part of the scientific community, are "remnants of massive stars that have reached the end of their evolutionary path in time and space." Stars with masses much larger than the sun end their evolution with a grand supernova explosion. During the explosion, a huge amount of energy is released. Huge compression forces act on the nuclei of atoms, destroying the atoms themselves, forcing the electrons to leave orbits around the center of the atom and press into protons and form neutrons, thus a superdense substance is obtained, consisting not of atoms, but representing a continuous packing of neutrons.This is how neutron stars are born.

The idea behind this hypothesis is that a substance with a density of ~ 1012 g / cm3, that is, an equal density of nuclei of atoms and neutron stars, is formed spontaneously as a result of viscous deceleration of electrons in orbits and their fall eventually onto the nucleus of an atom, as well as deceleration of axial rotation nuclei of atoms.

The viscous resistance and deceleration of orbital electrons and a decrease in the frequency of axial rotation of atomic nuclei are mainly due to two factors: the viscosity of the surrounding physical environment (ether) and the intersection of the lines of force of the microgravitational (in the current terminology, electric) field. The viscosity of the ether is low, but only the duration of the braking process depends on it.

The second component is determined by the number of crossed lines of force and the angle at which they intersect. The concentric orientation of the lines of force arises due to the axial rotational motion of the atomic nucleus according to the mechanism of formation of boundary layers. The orientation of the field lines periodically changes depending on the distance from the surface of the nucleus. With a high concentric orientation (allowed orbits), the orbital motion of electrons occurs practically without crossing the lines of force, that is, without deceleration. However, there is no practically ideal concentric orientation and the intersection of lines of force, and hence the deceleration of electrons always takes place.

The atomic nucleus, which has a density of ~ 1012 g / cm3, creates around itself a microgravitational field with a constant of 1.847.1028 cm3 / gs2, in which electrons move. The field has viscoelastic properties. Due to viscous resistance, electrons are slowly decelerated and eventually fall onto the nucleus.

The atom has a repulsive force, which arises due to viscous resistance and is directed normally to the direction of motion of the electron and the rotation of the nucleus (Lorentz force). When all the electrons fall on the nucleus or the axial rotation speed decreases significantly, the atom loses its repulsive force and, having a nucleus size of 10-13 cm, turns into an independent neutral particle.

It can be assumed that space is filled with such particles in continuous chaotic motion. How will they interact with each other, what is their fate, what direction is the further evolutionary development of matter with ultra-high density taking?

In the end, depending on the speed and direction of motion of the particles, there are two possibilities, either a collision of particles and their fragmentation will occur, or, on the contrary, their enlargement through mutual orbital capture. Thus, depending on specific conditions, evolutionary changes in high-density (1012 g / cm3) matter can occur simultaneously towards enlargement, up to the formation of large space objects - neutron stars, or, on the contrary, towards a decrease (fragmentation) of sizes and the formation of tiny particles - neutrinos.The possibility of orbital capture and enlargement of bodies can be realized with a decrease in speed below parabolic due to catalytic interaction with third bodies. As for the decrease in the size of bodies in the collision of particles, it seems appropriate to give preference to the theory of the liquid aggregate structure of nuclear matter, despite its high density [1,2] and fragmentation of particles by the "roun splash" mechanism for liquid secondary drops. The proposed hypothesis, subject to the development of methods for creating magnetic fields capable of slowing down the movement of electrons in orbits and reducing the speed of axial rotation of atomic nuclei, in our opinion, can be used for laboratory research to obtain artificial super dense matter (1012 g / cm3) and neutrinos.

However, indirect proof of the validity of the hypothesis put forward is the calculation of the magnetic field strength on the surface of the neutron star. It is known from the literature that the strength of the magnetic field possessed by a neutron star in the surface area usually reaches a value equal to 1012 - 1013 Gs. However, the literature lacks any convincing explanation for such an unusually high magnetic field strength on the surface of neutron stars.

Earlier [3], we studied the dependence of the magnetic field strength of ordinary space bodies on their mass, radius and rotation period. A quantitative expression (1) was obtained that relates these values:

H = (v / C)2 (M / RT)0.5, (1)

where v is the linear velocity at the equator of the cosmic body, C is the propagation speed of gravitational radiation (analogous to the speed of light), equal to 0.25.109 cm / s. M, R and T are mass, radius and period of rotation of a space body. Equation (1) satisfactorily describes the magnetic properties of solid planets. So, for example, close values of the calculated and reference values of te magnetic intensity were obtained for the surface of the Earth, cal. = 0.42 gauss andref. = 0.50 Gs.

Equation (1) was used to calculate the magnetic field strength of a neutron star with typical parameters: M = 0.28.1034 g (1.4 solar masses), R = 1.1.106 cm, T = 0.6 s. The calculation of the magnetic field strength on the surface of the neutron star gave a value of 0.14.1012 Gs, that is, within the previously given average values. This result serves as proof of the common origin of the magnetic properties of ordinary cosmic bodies and neutron stars, which confirms (albeit indirectly) the correctness of the proposed hypothesis about the origin of neutron stars.

Now on the neutrino. The proposed hypothesis is based on the concept of the liquid state of aggregation of nuclear matter. This means that "electron less" nuclei ~ 10-13 cm in size can collide according to the "crown splash" mechanism, when a drop of a liquid substance, striking the surface of another liquid substance, as a reaction to the impact leads to the formation of a large number of secondary small drops around the prime drop. The mechanism of this process is illustrated by the diagram in Fig. 1. The sizes of the secondary droplets are one to two decimal orders of magnitude smaller than the original droplet, so it can be assumed that they are "mysterious" neutrinos.

Fig. 1.Scheme of formation of secondary drops (the "crown splash" effect) when a liquid drop hits the surface of another liquid: 1- a drop of a primary liquid hits the surface of another liquid (top view), 2- a secondary drop, 3- a liquid vertical cylinder ( "Rim"), 4 - a stream of liquid.

Thus, a hypothesis has been proposed for the formation of neutron stars and neutrinos from atomic nuclei in two stages. The initial premise is the fact that the nuclei of atoms and neutron stars have the same high density of matter, equal to ~ 1012 g / cm3. At the first stage, due to the viscous resistance of the surrounding physical environment (ether) and the intersection of the lines of force of the microgravitational (electric) field, the electrons are decelerated in orbits and the speed of the axial rotation of the atomic nuclei decreases. As a result, electrons eventually fall onto the nucleus and merge with it. The presence of electrons revolving around the nucleus and the axial rotation of the nuclei gave the Lorentz an atoms a repulsive force. After the fall of electrons, as well as a decrease in the axial speed of rotation of nuclei, a large number of chaotically moving neutral particles with a high density appear in the surrounding space.The further fate of the particles depends on the speed of their collision. If the speed was lower than parabolic (the second "cosmic"), then the particles unite, turning into the center of growth of a cosmic body with a high density of matter, which can eventually turn into a neutron star. If the collision velocity was higher than parabolic, then fragmentation took place with the formation of small particles - neutrinos.


1. VA Arkhipov, VF Trofimov, Formation of secondary droplets under the impact of a droplet with a liquid surface, Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics, 2005, v. 16, no. 1, pp. 35-62.

2. RD Deegan, Ph Brunet, J Eggers, arXiv: Rayleigh-Plaeau instability causes the crown splash, 0806.3050v2 [physics.Flu-dyn] 3 Dec 2008.

3.A.T. Serkov, A.A. Serkov, MB Radishevsky, HYPOTHESES-1, Solar system and atoms, On the magnetism of the Earth and other cosmic bodies, p.12.

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